Thursday, 18 July 2013

Sustainable WASH Development by Public-private Partnership (A Component Sharing Model Case Study)

Sustainable WASH Development by Public-private Partnership: A Component Sharing Model Case Study
 M. Wasif Bashir Babar*, Malik Nazir Ahmad Wattoo**, Bahadar Nawab Khattak***, Muhmmad Jahangir****
* Sustainable Water Sanitaion Health and Development, CIIT Abbottabad, email:
** Anjuman Samaji Bahbood ASB, Failababad email:
*** Department of Development Studies, CIIT Abbottabad . email:
**** Coordinator, water Pakistan, email:
An integrated water supply, sanitation, health and hygiene project named Changa Pani Program was developed in the backward community of Lahore with the public-private partnership. This project was developed on the philosophy of component sharing model. External component of the project was designed and funded by the Government of Punjab whereas internal component was completed by the community on self-help base. A community based local water and sanitation community organization (WASCO) was organized. After the project completion, the infrastructure was handed over to the WASCO. Now this WASCO Organization is running the project successfully.

Component Sharing Model, WASCO, Public-Private Partnership, Project, WASH, Sustainability, WASA ,Environmental Development, efficiency, accessibility, affordability, WAPDA, Disease Level, Women water user group, community WASH Groups, street Representative
Background of the study
Lahore is second largest city of Pakistan and is provincial capital of   Punjab with approximate population of 8 million people. Project area Union Council 60 in Lahore Pakistan has a population of approximately 22,000, this area located near the Ranger Head Quarter Lahore.
The community living in the area reported serious health related issues as they had not adequate water supply and sanitation in the area by state and this Poor sanitation, unsafe water and unhygienic environments cause serious disease in women, old aged and children to suffer many water related and water borne diseases. Scarcity and misuse of the fresh water resources pose a serious and growing threat to sustainable development, environment protection, human health, welfare and food security of the area.
In the Badar colony there was much worse condition of the sanitation and people were facing the sanitation poverty of all type. The disposal of the excreta was unsafe, people were poor, toilets were improper and almost 7 people have the facility of just one toilet. Flush and discharge of sanitation system was being practicing. The excreta were disposed off through excavating a small sanitation well with 40 feet depth, this unethical practice poses very serious and dangerous impact on the ground water contamination, soil pollution, and nutrients loss. People of the area had very low literacy rate and limited awareness about the hygiene education and water resource management. A Community young man said that "elders and children’s health is affected as the sewage water is   mixed with the drinking water".
The existing water supply source was Ground water which people take through instillation of small motor pumps to extract ground water. This motor pump increases the economic burden on community in the shape of paying the electricity bills. Mostly people cooked their food in the open & they also did not take any measure to minimize food contamination. The streets were not paved and there was lot of soil loss in the rainy season due to the surface runoff. On the time of rain even children were not able to go school and this lead to the absent from school, put harmful effects on the child education.
There was not any microfinance institute and their activities to driven the poverty and help community to even make possible to meet the daily basic needs. The over view of this area was very porn and relative of the community never come and wish to meet them as these people were facing the sanitation poverty and inadequate water supply system, in the result people of badar colony were in the inferiority complex and  remained mentally upset all the time. Many young girls have not any proposal of marriage outside from the community even from their relatives due to improper water, sanitation, and poor hygienic condition of the area. This problem make highly enhancement in the anonymity stuff of the parents and make a question mark on the future planning of young generation and their life status.
People of the badar colony never used the boiled water for the drinking purpose. The access to hygiene information was limited due to poverty, low literacy and low mobility. The only source of health and hygiene information was T.V and relatives which is always limited in scope.
.There was a great complaint of the women that due to using the ground water they were facing the chicken poxes, scabies and hair fall issues. Very low social status and privacy for the women was at that area which was a question mark on the women dignity. The sanitation poverty made a question mark on the dignity of the women and young generation of that area. A high rate of the disease occurrence rate was examined and water related vector born disease were at the high rate. There was a strong association between community health, environment, and health behavior, literacy rate, poverty, and socio-economics status. The gendered nature of health and hygiene issue clearly required a health and hygiene strategy which addresses women, their low literacy and means of communication to make an intervention of water and sanitation by any governmental department like (WASA Lahore) or any other service provider agencies like NGOs and INGOs to develop a successful Water, sanitation, Health and Hygiene program in the area to provide them the basic human right at optimum level. They were striving and had desire for the change in their life by making the successful intervention in the WASH Sector at Badar colony UC 60-Lahore.

Changa Pani Programme a strategic initiative of the Government of Punjab through Urban Unit, Planning and Development Department in Partnership with City District Government Lahore, WASA Lahore ( Water utility) , Anjuman Samaji Bahbood (ASB) a civil society organization.
The Changa Pani means good water and its name was developed in the local language of the community so that community made it their own belongings. The purpose was to design and implementation of integrated water supply and sanitation project for poor un-served community of Badar Colony. The project was developed to provide an efficient, reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable WATSAN system in poor Urban Area of Badar Colony UC 60 Lahore for policy learning provision the basic human rights and attainment of Millennium Development Goal (MDGs).
Project Concept
The community involvement paradigm was officially adopted by the international community during 1977 World Water Conference in Mar del Plata, Argentina.
The conference adopted a slogan which was “Water and Sanitation for All”. The project is based on the integrated approach of water and sanitation for UC 60 community.
This project presented an ideal opportunity for demonstrating mechanisms for improving urban services within the current institutional limitations in the light of National Sanitation Policy of PAKISTAN.
This project was  developed on the vision of Affordable water and sanitation for all through Component sharing model philosophy with the mission of providing the best  quality services of Water, Sanitation, Health Hygiene education that must affordable ,reliable, accessible ,replicable ,sustainable and environmentally friendly  with partnership of Community, WASA, Civil Society, Government of Punjab.
“We are in the process of development, learn from each other and we will develop a model which is sustainable, replicable in cities of Punjab and other developing countries"( Project Team of Changa Pani Program).

Component sharing model.
Change Pani Program developed on the philosophy of component sharing model that was basically the division of the responsibilities and a strong but successful strategy to make sustainable development through Public private partnership .it had two components external and internal component. External component developed and funded by the Government of the Punjab and internal component with the community partnership on the self-help bases.
In the external component Government Develop and install the main water supply lines , main, sub-main and trunk sewer line, tube well with 700 feet depth to excavating the pure fresh water for the community, A disposal station to treat water before leading it to other water bodies the Overhead reservoir with the capacity of the 50 thousand gallon water storage. Government developed office Name “CHANGA PANI PROGRAM OFFICE” in the project area and was responsible to pay the salary of change Pani Staff with provision of the Computers and other logistics.
Internal component was totally developed by the community participation on the self help bases. Internal component was involved in the installation of the water supply and sewer lines in the link streets. It made a water supply and sewer connection at the step door of the household but household were responsible to make their connection in the home and link it with the street installed WATSAN Lines.. The Community contributes 39% in the infrastructure development. They participate at equal level and there was not even a single household which was free to take the WATSAN connection so all the community household paid for their facility.
The much vulnerable and poor household was facilitated to pay their connection fee in the easy installment but not free to pay at all.
Water and sanitation community organization(WASCO).
A community based water and sanitation community organization established. In this organization all the streets have their one representative which was elected by the consent of all the street households. This representative was responsible to collect money form the street, buy the logistics ,like water supply and sanitation pipes, its installation ,monitoring and management. All the representative of the streets elects a town representative which was responsible of handle all the developmental matters in the town. All the town representative of the towns elect a general body of the WASCO organization and this general body collectively elect a President, general secretary and finance secretary. These people were responsible for monitoring and developing all the infrastructural stuff.  They opened an account by the name of WASCO Society and all the collection of the money and water bills were directly paid in that account.
Water and sanitation Agency (WASA-Lahore) developed external component which was totally funded by the Government of the Punjab and community develop internal component under the supervision and assistance of the WASCO. As the project developed successfully, all the infrastructure was handed over to   WASCO by WASA. Now this community organization was responsible to supply water in the project area, maintain the sewerage system and disposal station, paying electricity bill to WAPDA, hiring the staff, paying their salary and office management.
As in this project community was fully engaged at each and every stage of its installation, construction, development and maintenance. Community also paid by money and time for the developing of internal component. They develop the sense of ownership and were much care about the operation and maintenance of the project. This was the dream of the community to have the WASH Facilities which come into real life with the self help and public private partnership.
Hygiene promotion and school education.
There was a health educator in the Change pani program team. She daily do visit at least 7 schools which were in the project area and deliver lecture there for the promotion of the hygiene and public behavior about the water and sanitation utilization. All the team members of the Changa pani do daily visit to project, mobilize and motivate the community members and influence the water and sanitation utilization behavior, facilitate the street WASH Promotion leader to collect the money and make the installation of the WATSAN Pipeline.
To highlight and eliminate the gender and women issues a Women water user group was also developed by the community in the result of the social mobilization of CPP Staff.
That women water user group address the WATSAN related issues and help in the influencing their male members of the house to engage and participate in the project to attain the WASH Facilities.
Through mutual understanding and strong cohesions between community and Governmental departments this project 100% completed successful. 
Objectives of the study:

  •      To know how extent project is made success
  •      To determine how extent people are satisfied with Changa Pani Services
  •      To know the social, economic and health impact of this program on the local community
  •      To determine the influence of this project on physical environment
Sociological significance
People of UC 60 Lahore were facing many of the problems concerning social economic political as well as WATSAN facilities. With the participation of the community it was proved that people can do a lot even they make sure of achieving the common goals and services.. They can get all the basic facilities with self-help and it was not impossible.
Methodology of the study
For the collection and getting the actual facts and public opinion about the project Survey technique was adopted. The project area has five towns with the population of 22000 people. Usman Town was targeted area for data collection in which almost there were 250 household with population of 1550 persons. This was chosen because the people of usman town were the pioneer of participant in this project, all the household this area had WATSAN Facilities of this project and it was near to main road for the easy access. 100 households were visited and interviewed that was a representative sample. Simple random sampling technique was used. The questionnaire was developed in the local language for facilitate the respondent.  Interview method was adopted for data collection due to the low literacy rate of the community. For making the strong and real mature form of data the Minimum age of respondent for this research was above 18 year. Only those household was taken who were the beneficiary of this project, and was enjoying the WATSAN facilities of Changa Pani Program. Percentage Frequency distribution tool was used to analysis of data.
Results and Discussion
Community Satisfaction with working of Project
This Integrated water supply and sanitation project developed on the public private partnership. Due to actively involvement of the community in this project the dream of getting the WATSAN Facility comes into the real life. Community was satisfied with the services of the project.

Figure1.1 is showing the community satisfaction level with the project developed by them as taking part in the internal component. in this figure almost 92% beneficiaries of this project were fully satisfy with the working and efficiency, affordability and flexibility of the project.4% were satisfied at some extent and 4% were not satisfied with the project .all the respondents respond very much and coordinate with the research team and there was not any single case of refusal.
Community Ownership                        
Community takes part in the development of the internal component by effectively participation with the money, time. They were engaged in all the phases of the project planning, developing, implementation, monitoring& Evaluation, policy making and installment. As result community attributed that this project was their own project as they were actively involved in all the major phases of the project.

Figure 1.2 showing that almost 90% beneficiaries of the project  determine and show their strong ownership about the project and 6% were not agree with the  concept of the ownership and about 4% have not any opinion and response about this project’s ownership matter.
CPP and Reduce the Disease Level.
Before the provision of water, sanitation and health hygiene facilities to the community of UC 60 Badar colony Lahore there was a high level of incidences of disease especially regarding the child and old aged. After the provision of these basic services the benefices were determined that by the provision and developing of this project the people of UC 60 had developed their health profile and social status. This WATSAN facility make optimum decrease level in the incidence of the disease in the area.

Figure 1.3 is showing that almost  89%  respondents were attributing that this project play vital role in the decreasing the  incidence of disease level from the area whereas 6% said it reduce disease level at some extent ,4% respondents said this project had brought no change in reducing the disease profile and 1% respondent have no response about this matter.
CPP and Improvement in Environmental Condition of the project area.
Before the provision of WATSAN Facilities at Badar Colony it was very serious repulsion condition of the environment and this unhygienic condition of the environment posed much worse effects on the human health but With the provision of the water supply, sanitation and health hygiene facilities in the area it play important role in the improvement of the environmental condition and reduce its pollution level.

Figure 1.4 showing that almost  78% Respondents respond were strongly agreed with efficiency and effectiveness of project and its role in the improvement of their environment by provision the underground water and sewerage system ,clean and neat streets and provision of health and hygiene education. 9% were agree with it role at some extent whereas 5% were strongly disagree and 6% were disagree at some extent about the role of project in improvement of the environment of the project area but  almost 2% have not any opinion and response about this matter.
Entry point of human development.
As this project was developed in peri-urban area of the Lahore where there was not any facility of the water and sanitation before this project. Young, children, women and other aged people had to cover almost 2KM distance to fetch water for the domestic usages which take much of their time in this matter. There was great health driven burden on the community due to the contamination water and they had to pay a lot to treat their loved one .these matters were great hindrance on the way of their progress in the social economic status. With the provision of WASH Facilities by the developing of the CPP Project community was able to save money and time which they used to spend on the treatment of the disease caused by the contaminated water utilization behavior.  It play very important role in the improving of socio-economic status of the community.

Figure 1.5 showing that about 80% respondents were strongly agree with project influence in enhancing the socio-economic status of the community, 5% were agree at some extent, 7% were disagree and 5% were disagree at some extent and were attributing that this project had  a little bit  any role in the enhancement of the socio-economic status of the community, whereas 3% respondents were not any opinion and response in this matter.
Water bills recovery Rates.
Many water supply schemes fail due to low rate of recovery of the water bills even the Governmental Agencies regarding Water, supply and sanitation as WASA failed to make its 100% recovery rate of the water bills. But this was surprising for all the service providing agencies of Water and sanitation as this program was developed in the much deprived and slum area where people were hardly making effort to find food for two times. They participate in this project and pay the water and sewer connection charges. And now were paying the water bills regularly on monthly bases which were 250 Rupees per month. They were reported that as we pay for the electricity, sui gas and TV Cabel bill, then why not we should pay for the safe and adequate water supply and sanitation facility in the area which is best safeguard of the health of our children and future generation.
Figure 1.6 showing that almost 95% were paying the water bills regularly  on monthly bases,5% were paying bills but not regularly as due to economic matter. They paid bill after two month or sometime after a delivery date with the extras charges. There was not any defaulter or unpaid household beneficiaries of this project that is the beauty of this project.

Enhancement in Enrollment Rate and  Education  Improvement.
As before this project people were not in the position to send their child to school due to low economic status, Unavailability of the proper sanitation facilities on the some schools which hinder to teenage girls to go school. In rainy season streets of the project area filled with water and children were unable to go to school even people could not go to mosque for the offering the prayer. But with the provision of this project almost many socio-economic and environmental issues were  defeated. Community members were asked about the role of this project in the increasing the rate of school going child. They were reported that with the attaining the WATSAN Facilities and street pavements we are able to spend more time on jobs ,earn money, spent this money on our children for their education which was not possible for us before it. Now our children are able to move to school even in the rainy season as we had not any issue of street dirtiness and poor WASH Facilities. This project increases the rate of school going children for getting education.

 Figure 1.7 showing that almost 75% respondent were strongly agree with the role of the project in accelerating the rate of school going child, 10% agree with this statement at some extent.9% respondents were not agree with the role of project in acceleration of the rate of school child whereas 2% respondent of the area have not any opinion and response in this matter.

Community Satisfaction with the Working of the WASCO.
A water and sanitation community committee was established in the project area based on the community member and this committee was elected by the community. This committee was responsible to take over the project after all the project’s infrastructural development and handle all the matter of water supply, sanitation, water billing, recovery, office management, staff paying with operation and maintenance of the project. After the successfully completion of the project community was asked about the working quality and transparency of the WASCO Committee. A huge number of the respondents were fully satisfied with the working and services of the WASCO.

Figure 1.8 Showing that almost 91% Respondents were strongly satisfy with the working efficiency and effectiveness of the WASCO. This was as because this committee was formulated by the community and even all the streets Water and sanitation representatives were involved in it and this street representative were also elected by the consent of all the household of the streets. All the members were responsible to make all the phases of the project pure form the embezzlement and a openly transparent transaction of the money form the account of WASCO to buy any things for the Project. , 7% were not satisfied with its working and 2% respondent had not any opinion and response about this matter.
This project was aimed to supply water at 24/7 days with water meter. But unfortunately there was not any consumer water meter by which it could be monitored. Community was delivered fixed monthly bills amount of 250 Rupees. That was many time dishonesty and discrimination against some peoples of the project area. Some people have family size 3-4 but most of others have above 7 people per household. Some people use water for their domestic purpose but most of them use this water for the washing the floor, vehicles and have multistory homes. Some people use water with very small quantity but some do it in more but all the water users were paying the fixed bill with no regards of the water utilization behavior. Most of the time water was not managed at household and it was wasted carelessly. Such as behavior leaded to wastage of freshwater resources. There was not any type of the water conservation, water measurement  and make preserve for the future generation. People were paying fixed monthly bills and using water as much at they want which is against the principle of the Sustainability.
All the partner of the Changa pani program had completed their responsibilities and played an effective role in the completion of this program. Project was 100% completed successfully in the time frame. Community participate 39% cost of total project which collected and distributed by the community for the developing of the internal component. Now WASA-Lahore had handover this program to the local community committee named WASCO and WASCO was striving to compete its responsibilities for solving all the maters regarding the water, sanitation and maintenances of the project assets. People were satisfied with the services and working of the changa pani program. Some people have a complaint regarding the water pressure. They were saying that water comes with the low pressure and some time with a speedily. It has some technical issues in the water supply management system due to failed of electricity power which some time be a reason of the cracking the small water supply lines. And people had to face critical problems regarding the water supply. there was a great level of the integration between the local community committees at and they are fully enthusiastic for generating a positive change in the condition of their area for having the facilities of the dispensary, park, Govt School and better road system surrounding this area.

There are some suggestions concerning this program which is given below.
  • There should be construct at least one or two dispensary for this community and doctors must be engaged in the WASH Activities.
  • Government should launch such as program with the involvement of the local community..
  • There should be established monitoring team or committee for check and balance the performance of the WASCO.
  • Such as program should be launched as well as develop in the neighbor areas the badar colony.
  • WASA Lahore should be involved in this program and work with the WASCO and give it technical assistant permanently.
  • Water meter must be installed.
  • The more researches should be done on such as program to attain the accurate knowledge about the process as well as outcomes of the projects.
  • Community involvement program should be proceeding so that we can meet MDGs successfully. And attain the environmental protection.

  • (Faheem Jehangir Khan & Yaser Javed, 2007) Provision of safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and personal hygiene are vital for the sustainable environmental conditions
  • ." Dr LEE Jong-wook (2004), Director-General, World Health Organization. "Water and Sanitation is one of the primary drivers of public health.
  • Hameedullah Jan Afridi, February 12, 2010 (Minister for Environment). serious threats to water availability in the country
  • Wasif bashir ,imran,et all 2010,Evaluation research of Changa pani program , Punjab University Library
  • M. Mujibur Rahaman (1989) impact of a water, sanitation and hygiene education intervention project on diarrhoeal morbidity in children under 5 years old in a rural area of Bangladesh
  • Access to safe drinking water is a basic human right, (World 2009).
  • The combination of safe drinking water and hygienic sanitation facilities are precondition for health and for success in the fight against poverty, hunger, child deaths and gender inequality. (WHO & UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program on Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).
  • ( Nazir A.Wattoo ,Hussainy 2007) They have no access to government water supply and sanitation schemeUC 60 Lhr. Poverty, illiteracy and absence of any health and hygiene programme have resulted in poor community health.
  • (UNESCO 2006). Cairneross et al. (2005) integrated approach to water and sanitation highlighted the importance of health and hygiene education
  • DeNormandle and Sunita (2002)  India widespread unhygienic practices during water collection ,limited access to sanitation facilities be responsible for the transmission of diarrhea causing germs through the fecal oral route
  • Robert N. Emeh, et all (14 September 1989 ) health impact evaluation was conducted by them in conjunction with the Imo State Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Nigeria.
  • F.Jehangir Khan, and Y.Javed“Delivering Access to Safe Drinking Water and Adequate Sanitation in Pakistan,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics 30 (2007) Accessed February 17, 2011.
  • "Gender, Water, and Sanitation: A Policy Brief," UN Water, accessed on February 23,2011,Accessed February 17, 2011
  • Pakistan's Waters at Risk: Water and Health Related Issues & KeyRecommendations,"WWF Pakistan(2007), accessed February 23, 2011,
  • Dilwara Akhter Jahan, (28 June 2002) an educational intervention previously shown to alter hygienic practices and reduce rates of childhood diarrhoea in 25 slum communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh is described in detail
  • Bilqis A. Hoque et all, (2002) rural Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) project in wide areas of rural Bangladesh, women water user group, pump caretakers and trainers Carol Kolb deWilde et all, (12 May 2008) Community-based safe drinking water programes are being promoted as cost-effective interventions that will help reduce this illness burden


1 comment:

  1. I congratulate!
    I am sincerely glad to your success.